Parashas Eikev

In this week’s parashah, Moshe says (Devarim 10:12): “And now, Yisrael, what does Hashem your God ask of you? Only to fear Hashem your God ….” The Gemara expounds (Berachos 33b):
Is fear of heaven such a small thing? … Yes, with Moshe it was a small thing. As R. Chaninah said: “By way of analogy, if someone is asked for a large vessel and he has one, it seems to him like a small vessel, but if he is asked for a small vessel and he does not have one, it seems to him like a large vessel.”
The Maggid says that this Gemara cannot be read at a simple level. He asks: Does the fact that for Moshe fear of heaven was a small thing justify his demanding it of the rest of the Jews of his generation? Does the fact that a rich person has a large vessel justify his demanding that his poor neighbor bring one also? To understand the Gemara properly, we must look deeper.
The Maggid takes as his starting point an idea he developed in the first essay in his commentary on the Book of Ruth. When Noach and his family left the ark after the flood, Hashem told them (Bereishis 9:2): “And the fear and the dread of you shall be upon every beast of the field and every bird of the sky – upon all that creeps on the ground and all the fish of the sea.” Why did Hashem convey this message to Noach and his family? On first thought, it seems that it would have made more sense for Hashem to speak to the animals and command them to fear people. What point was Hashem making?
To explain the idea behind Hashem’s words, the Maggid introduces two additional sources. The first source is a Midrash in Bereishis Rabbah 70:11 and Midrash Seichel Tov (Buber ed.), Bereishis Chapter 29, Paragraph 10. It is written (Tehillim 34:8): “The angel of Hashem encamps around those who fear Him and rescues them.” The Midrash applies this verse to Rachel. Yisro’s daughters would be chased away from their local well by the shepherds. But when Rachel went to her local well, the shepherds never disturbed her; her fear of God precluded them from doing so. The second source is the following verse (Devarim 28:10): “And all the nations of the world will see the Name of Hashem written upon you, and they shall be fearful on account of you.” 
The idea is as follows. Speaking of the Torah, David HaMelech declares (Tehillim 119:105): “Your words are a lamp unto my feet.” In a similar way, the fear of God within the soul of a God-fearing person is like a lamp. When a person lights a lamp for himself, the light spreads to others as well. As Gemara in Shabbos 122b says, a lamp for one person is a lamp for a hundred people. A person whose heart is full of fear of God radiates his fear of God onto his surroundings. This fact is reflected in the verse from Devarim quoted above. We can now understand what Hashem was telling Noach and his family. He was telling them that they should fear Him so intensely that the fear will radiate out to the animals and make them tremble. Without the fear of God, a person looks to the animals like just another animal (cf. Shabbos 151b), but a person who radiates fear of God is immune from harm, as was the case with Rachel.
The Maggid quotes the Vilna Gaon as saying that there is a certain critical level of fear of God that a person must have in order for his fear of God to radiate onto others. By way of analogy, imagine a small basin placed inside a larger basin, with a person pouring water into the small basin. So long as the small basin is not yet full, no water will reach the larger basin, but if the person continues pouring after the small basin is full, the excess water will spill into the larger basin. It is similar with fear of God. When a person’s soul is completely filled with fear of God, then fear of God will spill out from him onto his surroundings.
Fear of Hashem depends on comprehension of Hashem. Fear of Hashem is present in heaven because the heavenly beings have a substantial level of comprehension of Hashem. They behold Hashem’s awesome glory and they are overcome with fear that makes them sweat so much that their sweat forms the Dinur River (Chagiggah 13b). But the average person sits in darkness, with a very low level of comprehension of Hashem. If a person lacks wisdom, he surely cannot have any appreciable fear of Hashem. The only way to attain fear of Hashem is to study the Torah and perform the mitzvos that Hashem brought down from heaven and conveyed to us. By analogy, suppose a person wants to cultivate a certain spice that grows only in certain areas. He must then bring soil from one of these areas, embed this soil into a section of his property, and plant seeds of the spice in this soil. Similarly, Hashem brought part of heaven down to our world so that fear of Him could develop here. Often certain products that come from a certain place are named after the place they come from. In this vein, fear of Hashem is called “fear of heaven” because heaven is the primary source of fear of Hashem.
For us, fear of God is indeed not a small thing. But it is far from a person’s reach only if his community lacks righteous people. If a righteous person is present in a person’s community, then fear of God is well within his reach. This fact is reflected in a verse we quoted previously: “The angel of Hashem encamps around those who fear Him and rescues them.” The surroundings of a God-fearing person are suffused with holiness.
Certain gems can be found only in distant places. But if a merchant travels to the appropriate area and brings a stock of these gems to a certain city, the people of the city can easily obtain them. They can do so, however, only if they approach the merchant and buy them or ask for them as a gift. Similarly, a righteous person can imbue other members of his community with fear of Hashem, but only if they draw close to him. We can link this idea to a teaching in Bava Kamma 41b. It is written (Devarim 6:13): “את ה' אלוקיך תירא – Hashem, your God, you shall fear.” The Gemara says that that extra word את in the verse comes to extend the exhortation to a directive to fear Torah scholars. It is essential for us to follow this directive, for that is the only way we have to attain fear of Hashem.
We can now understand what the Gemara in Berachos 33b means when it says that with Moshe fear of Hashem is a small thing, and appreciate R. Chaninah’s analogy about the large vessel and the small vessel. For people who were placed “with Moshe” – in his vicinity – fear of Hashem was easily attainable. For Moshe was filled with fear of Hashem, and the fear spilled over from him to his surroundings. When the Gemara speaks of a person who is asked for a large vessel and has one, it is speaking of a person who can obtain the large vessel from someone else. Thus, when Hashem granted some of Moshe’s powers of prophecy to the elders of the Jewish People, He described this process by saying that he was going to “take from the spirit that is upon you and place it upon them” (Bamidbar 11:17). The phrase “upon you” indicates Moshe’s abundant fear of Hashem – so abundant that it overflowed, spilling onto him and those nearby him. In a similar vein, in the first paragraph of the Shema, Hashem tells us (Devarim 6:6): “And these words that I command you today shall be on your heart.” A Jew’s heart should be so filled with words of Torah that the words spill out onto it.
David Zucker, Site Administrator

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