Post Archive for March 2008

Parashas Tazria

This week’s parashah deals with nigei tzaraas: leprous-like skin lesions that  would come upon a person for speaking loshon hara or comitting certain other offenses (Arachin 16a lists six others – murder, false swearing, immoral relations, haughtiness, theft, and stinginess). The parashah describes how a person who developed a suspect lesion would go to a Kohen to have it examined. The Midrash, in Vayikra Rabbah 15:9, comments that in this world it is the Kohen who examines such lesions, but in the end of days the Holy One Blessed Be He will be the One to purify us, as it is written (Yechezkel 36:25, a verse from the haftarah of parashas Parah): “I shall sprinkle upon you pure waters, and you shall be purified.” The Maggid, at the end of Ohel Yaakov, parashas Tazria, sets out to explain this Midrash.
The Maggid builds on the following verse (Shemos 15:26): “If you diligently heed the voice of Hashem your God, and you do what is right in His eyes, and you harken to His commandments, and you observe all His decrees – all of the illness I inflicted upon Egypt I shall not inflict upon you, for I am Hashem your Healer.” He points up the obvious question: If we are not going to be subjected to illness, why do we need Hashem to be our Healer?
The Maggid explains as follows. The disease of tzaraas was a result of a spiritual illness. When a person was plagued with a grave spiritual illness (associated with the seven offenses listed above), Hashem would afflict him with tzaraas. The person would then go to the Kohen to be examined. In addition to examining the person, the Kohen would give him moral exhortation, so as to heal him from his spiritual illness. [At present, we are unfortunately not privileged to have this healing mechanism available: tzaraas is no longer extant, and its laws are thus no longer in operation.] In the end of days, Hashem will purify us and lead us to heed His Torah, which is His book of remedies for spiritual ills. We then will not need to undergo the experience of suffering tzaraas and going to the Kohen; Hashem Himself will be our Healer. Let us strive already now to study and keep the Torah diligently, so that we may attain spiritual well-being.
David Zucker, Site Administrator

Parashas Shemini, Part 2

In this week’s parashah, we read of the tragic death of Aharon’s son’s Nadav and Avihu for bringing a “foreign fire” before Hashem. The Midrashim give various explanations of the nature of their transgression. R. Yishmael builds his explanation on a Torah passage that immediately follows this episode. The Torah relates (Vayikra 10:8-9): “Hashem spoke to Aharon, saying: ‘Do not drink wine or liquor, you or your sons with you, when you enter the Tent of Meeting, so that you may not die. This is an eternal statute for all your generations.’” Based on this, R. Yishmael’s explains that Nadav and Avihu’s sin was entering the Mishkan under the influence of wine.
The Maggid explains the idea behind this as follows. The Mishkan (and its successor, the Beis HaMikdash) was the prime source of joy within the world – the place where the joy of serving Hashem reached its peak. A Kohen who drinks wine before entering the Mikdash acts as if he needs an external stimulus – a foreign fire – to kindle joy in his heart over the  service he will be performing there. This suggests that, when he goes to perform his sacred duties, his heart is not really in it. Hashem regards such a hint of apathy, among those at the level of serving in the Mikdash, as a serious offense.
We should take a lesson from this and strive to cultivate within our hearts a feeling of simchah shel mitzvah. The Maggid frequently expounds on this theme. For example, in his commentary on Ruth 2:11-12, he explains that this idea is what underlies the following classic teaching (Avos 1:3):
Do not be like servants who serve their master for the purpose of receiving a reward, but rather be like servants who serve their master not for the purpose of receiving a reward.
There is no greater joy than the joy of serving Hashem; any other reward pales by comparison. A desire for reward is a sign of spiritual illness. We must strive to purify ourselves and restore our spiritual health. We will then feel the joy of serving Hashem in full measure.
David Zucker, Site Administrator

Parashas Shemini

In the opening section of this week’s parashah Moshe tells Aharon and his sons (Vayikra 9:6): “This is the procedure that Hashem has commanded you to carry out, and then Hashem’s glory will appear to you.” In the Ohel Yaakov commentary on the Chumash, the Maggid connects this verse with the following teaching (Shabbos 127a, paraphrased):
The ways of the Holy One Blessed Be He differ from those of men. Among men, one of lesser stature cannot say to one of greater stature, “Wait until I come to you.” But with the Holy One Blessed Be He it is different, for He consented when Avraham asked Him not to leave him while he took care of guests [after Hashem had appeared to him].
The Maggid explains the connection as follows. Our early teachers, including Rambam (in Moreh Nevuchim), handed down to us the basic principle that Hashem never undergoes any change of state or place. Hence, when the Bible says that Hashem appeared to a particular person, it cannot mean that Hashem moved from where He was before and placed Himself in this person’s vicinity. Rather, Hashem’s “proximity” to a person depends entirely on the degree to which the person draws close to Hashem. Thus, it is written (Shir HaShirim 7:11): “I am unto my Beloved, and upon me is His desire.” Hashem’s level of desire for a person is upon the person himself to determine. The Maggid expounds on this concept at length in his commentary on Shir HaShirim 3:11.
Among men, one of lesser stature cannot say to one of greater stature, “Wait until I come to you.” For then the lesser one is telling the greater one how to act – specifically, where to situate himself, and thus infringing on his honor. But when a person asks Hashem not to leave him, he is asking Hashem to help him maintain his connection with Him while he attends to the business encumbent on him. Such a request is perfectly in order.
We can interpret along these lines a debate about the Sabbath between the wicked Roman governor Turnus Rufus and R. Akiva (Sanhedrin 65b). Turnus Rufus asked: “What makes the Sabbath different from all other days?” R. Akiva responded: “What makes you different from all other men?” Turnus Rufus replied: “My master wished it so [that I be elevated].” R. Akiva said: “It is thus with the Sabbath too—our Master wished it so [that it be elevated].” Turnus Rufus was asking how it could be, given that Hashem is unchanging, that He could relate to us differently on the Sabbath than on a weekday. R. Akiva answered that our relationship with Hashem changes because we change. Similarly, when the Bible speaks of Hashem “dwelling” in a certain place, it means that the place has special qualities that stir a person to draw himself close to Hashem. When he does so, he then experiences the Divine Presence.
This is what Moshe was telling Aharon and his sons when he said:  “This is the procedure that Hashem has commanded you to carry out, and then Hashem’s glory will appear to you.” By perfoming the service that Hashem had commanded, Aharon and his sons would draw themselves close to Hashem. And then Hashem’s glory would appear to them.
David Zucker, Site Administrator

Haftaras Tzav

[The regular haftarah for Parashas Tzav is Yirmiyah 7:21-8:3 and 9:22-23. In Yerushalayim, where Shabbos Parashas Tzav this year is Purim, this haftarah is replaced by a re-reading of the haftarah for Parashas Zachor. But in the rest of the world, the regular haftarah is read.] 
Haftaras Tzav begins with the following passage (Yirmiyah 7:21–22):
“Thus said the Lord of Hosts, the God of Israel: ‘Add your burnt-offerings to your peace-offerings, and eat [their] meat! For on the day I took your forefathers out of the Land of Egypt, I did not speak with them or issue any command to them concerning burnt-offerings or peace-offerings. Rather, it was only this thing that I commanded them, saying, “Hearken to My voice, so that I will be your God, and you will be My people—and you will follow the entire path that I command you, so that it will be well for you.”’”
The disdain Hashem shows here for offerings is puzzling, for much of the Torah, including the bulk of Sefer Vayikra, is devoted to the laws of offerings. The Maggid offers several explanations.
1. Hashem is telling us that our mitzvah acts please Him only when we do them in order to serve Him. But if we do them only for our own benefit, they are worthless. The Maggid likens a person who does mitzvos just for personal benefit to a building contractor who assembles all the materials listed in the contract specifications but fails to build the building. Individual mitzvah acts, even if done exactly according to the Torah’s specifications, are of value only if they form a ensemble of service to Hashem. Thus, Hashem told Moshe (Shemos 3:12): “For I shall be with you—and this is your sign that I have sent you: When you take the people out of Egypt, you shall serve God on this mountain.” Serving Hashem is the goal.
2. Hashem is telling us that offerings are only a means of fostering fear of Hashem and readiness to hearken to His voice. If a person comes to the Beis HaMikdash and brings an offering, but this process does not stir him to become more God-fearing, then he has not accomplished anything of value.
3. Hashem accepts offerings to atone for sin on a post-facto basis, but this is not the form of service He desires. Rather, He wants us to perform mitzvos properly and not need to seek atonement. The Maggid brings out the point with a business analogy. A person bought merchandise on credit. Soon before the time he was supposed to pay, house burned down, leaving him penniless. He salvaged whatever possessions he could from the ruins, and offered them as payment. The seller, out of pity, accepted this payment. But it is clear that, if the fellow wanted to buy more merchandise, the seller would not agree to be paid in this form. He accepted the payment in salvaged goods only as a stopgap measure. Similarly, Hashem accepts offerings to atone for sin as a stopgap measure, but He does not wish such offerings to become a routine way of dealing with Him.
David Zucker, Site Administrator

Megillas Esther, Part 2

In his brilliant final piece in his commentary on Megillas Esther, the Maggid brings out a message that underlies the entire Megillah. He tells us that Hashem has His own special way of dealing with antagonists, different from that of mortal men. Suppose a person wishes to foil the plans of enemies who are plotting against him, or wants to rescue an oppressed neighbor from his oppressor. He then must make plans and take steps that directly oppose the actions of those who are making trouble for him or his neighbor. He must totally demolish the evil plans of the enemies, and stand up against them with force until they disperse and flee. But when the Holy One Blessed Be He wishes to take revenge on evildoers who plot against His faithful servants, He does not take any steps to oppose their actions. He does not disrupt their plans at all. He simply leads them to form a foolish plan, which they are allowed to carry out as they please, and this plan itself ensnares them and lowers them down into the well of destruction. Not only will their actions fail to harm their intended victim as they had imagined, but these very actions will bring about their own resounding downfall and lead to their utter doom. Thus Shlomo HaMelech declares (Mishlei 5:22): “A wicked man’s iniquities will ensnare him, and with the ropes of his sins he will be hanged.” That is, with the same ropes that he relied on to support his nefarious plans, he will end up hanging his own self.
Thus it was with the wicked Haman. He never stopped ruminating over how he would bring down the righteous Mordechai, and the whole People of Israel along with him. In the end he decided, on the advice of his wise men and his wife Zeresh, to make a fifty cubit high gallows on which to hang Mordechai. His friends told him if the gallows were not ready, he could not be sure to achieve his goal. Even if Ahashveirosh would agree to hang Mordechai, there was always the chance that he would change his mind while the gallows was being built. After all, Ahashveirosh was known to be a fickle character (Megillah 15b). Haman did not realize that Hashem was the one who had put the idea into his head, and that the building of the gallows would itself lead to his own downfall and the Jewish People’s salvation. Had the gallows not been ready, Ahashveirosh’s anger at Haman could easily have died down before his order to hang Haman could be carried out. But since the gallows was already built, Haman was hanged right away. The Megillah states (Esther 6:4): “Haman came to the outer courtyard of the king’s palace to tell the king to hang Mordechai on the gallows that he had prepared for him.” On this the Midrash comments (Esther Rabbah 10:2):
“To hang Mordechai on the gallows that he had prepared for him.” It is taught: “For him [i.e. himself] he prepared it.” About him it is written (Tehillim 7:14, 7:16): “Then he shall have prepared for himself the weapons of death; his arrows which he wanted to turn into swift pursuers. … He has dug a pit and hollowed it, and then he fell into the abyss that he wanted to prepare.”
Similarly, on the verse that tells of how Haman built the gallows, the Midrash comments (Esther Rabbah 9:2): “A Heavenly voice retorted: ‘The gallows is fitting for you. The gallows has been prepared for you since the Six Days of Creation.’” It is precisely as we have just explained.
PS: The mode of operation where God ensures that all of man’s actions ultimately serve His plan is known as hanhagas ha-yichud, and is expounded upon in depth in Ramchal’s Daas Tevunos.
David Zucker, Site Administrator

Amalek – Parashas Zachor

For Parashas Zachor, I present here a piece dealing with Amalek from the Maggid’s commentary on Esther 7:5-6 (adapted from Voice of Rejoicing and Salvation).
Regarding the Nation of Amalek, the Torah declares (Bamidbar 24:20): “Amalek is the first of nations.” In general, when something is called first (rosh or reishis), this means it is a primary source. Whatever is first is the root, while all events or entities that follow are branches growing forth from the root. For instance, our Sages tell us that Rosh Hashanah is the root of all the events that will unfold during the course of the entire year (Kerisos 5b-6a). Similarly, the Sabbath is the root of the entire week.
In the same way, Amalek is the root of all hatred toward the People of Israel. All the other gentile nations that are led by the Nation of Amalek to hate us are like branches growing forth from this root. Amalek is the prime descendant of Eisav, who hated Yaakov while still in his mother’s womb. Because Amalek is the root of hatred for the People of Israel, this nation will be the primary target when Hashem comes to avenge the People of Israel in the end of days. As our Sages put it (Bereishis Rabbah 63:8), the Holy One Blessed Be He, Who is called first, will take vengeance on our behalf upon Eisav, who is also called first.
There is a basic difference between Amalek’s hatred for the Jewish People and that of the other gentile nations. We can elucidate this difference with an analogy. A person usually does not keep wood in his house all the time. When he needs some wood, he goes out to where he can get it and brings it home, but one will not find wood in his house without a reason. However, one will find wood in the forest at all times and for no specific reason, because the forest constitutes the source of wood. Similarly, most gentile nations feel hatred for the Jewish People only when there is a reason. But the Amalekites hate the Jewish People for no reason, because Amalek is the source of all the world’s hatred for the Jewish People.
Thus, in Esther 7:6, Haman the Amalekite is called ish tzar v’oyeiv – the man who is an oppressor and an enemy. The title ish tzar v’oyeiv given to Haman can be compared with the title ish sadeh – man of the field – that the Torah gives Eisav (Bereishis 25:27)..This title indicates that the field was Eisav’s province. Similarly, hatred of the Jewish People was Haman’s province. Haman was the fountain from which all hatred for the Jewish People flowed.
When Esther told Achashveirosh about the evil adversary who plotted to wipe out the Jewish People, Achashveirosh asked: “Who is this? Which is the one who dared to do such a thing?” He wanted to know both who it was who hated her people so much, and why he hated them so. Esther replied that the adversary was Haman, the ish tzar v’oyeiv, the source of all hatred for the Jewish People, who hated the Jewish People for no reason. We had not wronged anyone, and so the other gentiles did not hate us. They only hate us when there is some conflict between them and us. When the conflict ceases, so does their hatred. But Edom’s hatred never ceases, because it is not dependent on any cause.
Similarly, the Torah tells us that Amalek “happened upon us” on our way out of Egypt. This is a true sign of their deep-seated, total hatred of us. They came upon us without any prior reason. We did not enter their territory; rather they happened upon us on the way. Since they attacked us for no reason, it is clear that they are a true nemesis, with whom there is no possibility ever to make peace.
The depth of the Amalekites’ hatred becomes even clearer when we consider the nature of their combat against us. Suppose, by way of analogy, that at the end of a banquet, one of the guests starts eating the scraps of food left on the table and drinking the leftover wine in the cups. What sort of person would do this? Clearly not someone who eats and drinks simply to satisfy his hunger and quench his thirst. No such person would take the slightest glance at these leftovers, for they would hardly help to refresh anyone. Anyone who would go around the table gulping them down is obviously a glutton and a lush.
Similarly, a typical warring nation is satisfied when most of the enemy camp, including the enemy’s warriors, is wiped out. The attackers will leave alone the remaining weak segment of the enemy population. But not so with Amalek. Of Amalek it is written (Devarim 25:18): “And he struck the hindmost among you, all the weak ones at your rear.” Edom, whom Amalek represents, calls out in battle against Yerushalayim with the words (Tehillim 137:7): “Raze it, raze it, down to its foundation.” Why do they care about the foundation, if the house is already burnt down? It is because they hate us utterly – they are the source of hatred against the Jewish People, a nation of people who need no reason to hate Jews and attack them.
Therefore Hashem commands us (Devarim 25:19): “And it will be, when Hashem your God will give you rest from all your enemies around you, in the land that Hashem your God has given you as an estate to inherit, that you must blot out the memory of Amalek from beneath the heavens – do not forget.” After all the other gentile nations have made peace with us, we will still need to blot out the memory of Amalek, for we cannot trust this nation to make true peace with us. As Yeshayah puts it (Yeshayah 57:21): “There is no peace, says my God, for the wicked.” We cannot be secure that we are free from them until there no trace of them left in the world.
David Zucker, Site Administrator

Megillas Esther

With Purim just around the corner, I present here a piece from the Maggid’s commentary on Megillas Esther, adapted from my English translation Voice of Rejoicing and Salvation.
The Megillah reports that Achashveirosh, in the third year of his reign, made a lavish feast for his entire kingdom. Jews were present at that feast (inappropriately, in Hashem’s eyes). The Midrash, in Esther Rabbah 2:5, reports an intriguing interchange that took place between Achashveirosh and the Jews at that feast. Achashveirosh boasted about the superlative lavishness of his feast, and challenged the Jews: “Will your God be able to do for you more than this at the end of days?” They replied: “‘No eye has seen, O God, aside from You, what You will do for those who await You’ (Yeshayah 64:3, homiletically). If He makes for us a feast like this, we will tell Him that we already partook of such a feast at Achashveirosh’s table.”  
The Maggid explains this interchange as follows. The Jews’ decision to attend Achashveirosh’s feast was misguided, but it did have a rationale. They based their decision on the following teaching (Berachos 58a): “A person should always make an effort to run to greet Jewish kings. And not only to greet Jewish kings, but even to greet gentile kings. For if he merits [to see the future redemption], he will be able to distinguish between Jewish kings [that is, the unparalleled glory of the Messianic king] and gentile kings [of the present].” In line with this teaching, they went to Achashveirosh’s feast was to be able to distinguish between a feast that a mortal king makes and the feast that Hashem will make for the righteous at the end of days.
Achashveirosh correctly guessed that this was why they came. He therefore challenged them as the Midrash describes. It is as if he said to them: “The fact that you came to my table proves that you were promised a feast greater than this. But, in my opinion, your God is incapable of making anything better than this.”
The Jews replied with what was, in veiled form, a very sharp retort. The Maggid brings out the point with an allegory. A rich man had a wife with a very bad disposition. She aggravated him constantly and made him miserable. At every meal, she would whine at him so much that he would become totally fed up with life. Once she had to leave the house for a few days to take care of something. The rich man remained home alone with his devoted servants, enjoying the brief respite from his wife’s haranguing. He told his maid to prepare his favorite delicacies and to bring him some good wine, and he ate and drank well, and was quite merry. He planned to indulge himself on the next day with another feast, even more lavish than the first. He delighted in the blissful peace and quiet.
But suddenly his wife came home, earlier than expected. As he saw her, his heart was crushed and his face turned pale. His wife understood that he was very upset that she had come back so quickly. She therefore told the maid to deck his table out with delicacies and wine, just as the maid had done on the night before. The man again ate and drank well, but he wondered quite a bit what had gotten into his wife. After he had finished dining, his wife asked him: “My husband, please tell me the truth: Did you find the food as enjoyable today as it was yesterday?” He answered her: “In truth, the food was not as good yesterday as it was today. But nevertheless I enjoyed it more because I was dining by myself, without you around to badger me to death.”
The Jews’ reply to Achashveirosh’s challenge was along the same lines. They were thinking: “Even if it were as you say, that God’s feast will be no greater than yours, nonetheless we would still enjoy ourselves then many times more than we do now. For then, it will be a feast at the table of God, without you [making a play on the words in Yeshayah 64:3]. We will be out from under your thumb, and there is no greater pleasure in the world than that.”
Obviously the Jews could not say this outright. Hence they merely hinted at the idea by quoting the verse from Yeshayah, including the crucial closing phrase. Then, in their second statement, they shifted the discussion elsewhere to disguise their true intent.
David Zucker, Site Administrator

Parashas Pekudei, Part 2

This week’s parashah begins with the following verse (Shemos 38:21): “These are the accounts of the Mishkan, the Mishkan of testimony. …” The Midrash (Shemos Rabbah 51:3) says that this verse, with its repetition of the word mishkan, hints at the fact that the Beis HaMikdash was to be pawned twice. Here the Midrash builds on the similarity between the word mishkan and the word mashkon, meaning collateral. Hashem, so to speak, pawned the Beis HaMikdash in order to ransom the Jewish People from the fate facing them due to their sins. Another Midrash brings out the idea further (Eichah Rabbah 4:14): “The Holy One Blessed Be He poured out His wrath on the wood and stones [of the Beis HaMikdash], and did not pour out His wrath on Israel.” We deserved a severe sentence, but the Beis HaMikdash was given as ransom to redeem us. Hence it behooves us to exert ourselves to gain the Temple’s restoration.
The Maggid, in his commentary on Lamentations 2:19, presents the following allegory to bring out the point. A man was put in prison, and then sentenced to death. A certain kind gentleman resolved to redeem this man, but he could not amass the ransom money. The gentleman therefore took all his finest household goods and expensive jewelry and pawned everything for the ransom money. In this way he gained the prisoner’s release.
Clearly this released prisoner has a duty to reciprocate the kind benefactor who rescued him. The least he should do is collect the money needed to redeem his rescuer’s possessions from the pawnbroker. To this end, he should work nonstop, not allowing himself any sleep or rest. Moreover, he ought to be sparing on personal expenses, in order to save money to reimburse his rescuer. If instead he squanders his money carelessly, his ill-conduct will be obvious to everyone.
It is the same, the Maggid says, with us and Hashem. Since Hashem “pawned” the Beis HaMikdash to ransom us, we have a duty to strive to secure its restoration. We must be sparing with the time, effort, and money we spend on our personal needs, and focus instead on what we need to do to bring the Beis HaMikdash back.
David Zucker, Site Administrator

Parashas Pekudei

This week’s parashah begins with a report of Moshe’s accounting of the materials contributed to the Mishkan and how they were used. The Midrash says that the accounting was made at Moshe’s behest (Shemos Rabbah 51:1 and 51:6). Now surely Moshe did not think that the people suspected him of appropriating some of the materials, far be it. What, then, was his intent?
The Maggid explains that Moshe wished to inspect the work, to check whether it had all been done exactly as Hashem had commanded, without additions or deletions. Moshe reasoned that, while the accounting was being carried out, he would be able to discern the nature of each item the people had built, and assess whether it conformed with Hashem’s instructions.
The Maggid brings out the point with the following allegory. A man was a guest at someone’s home for a length of time. When the time came for the guest to leave, the host wanted to inspect the guest’s baggage, to see if the guest had taken anything from the house. But, obviously, the host wanted to do so without creating an awkward situation. So he said to the guest: “Come, let us check over your baggage, to see if you have left any of your belongings in my house.” The host’s intent, of course, was just the opposite, but he framed the inspection as he did in order to spare his guest embarrassment. 
Similarly, when Moshe wanted to inspect the work done on the Mishkan, he did not want the Jewish People to catch on that he suspected them of possibly having deviated from Hashem’s instructions. Hence he directed the suspicion against himself, and framed the inspection as an accounting to verify that he had not appropriated anything. We can discern Moshe’s true intent from the way the Torah sums up the accounting: “And Moshe saw the entire work, and, behold, they had done it – as Hashem had commanded, thus they had done.” The Torah does not sum up by saying that Moshe had dealt faithfully, and all of the materials were accounted for. Rather, the Torah sums up by praising the Jewish People for not deviating from Hashem’s instructions. We thus see that the true purpose of the accounting was to examine whether the Jewish People had reacted to Hashem’s word appropriately – that is, with simple compliance. And in the end, although the project involved many workers, it was found that every one of them faithfully carried out Hashem’s word to the letter. In this way, the Jewish People rectified the sin of the golden calf. There, the people had introduced a new form of service on their own. Here, the people simply followed Hashem’s word, with no reckonings of their own whatsoever. In the parashah, the Torah emphasizes the people’s compliance through the repeated use of the phrase “as Hashem commanded Moshe.” Everything was done exactly as Hashem had commanded.   
The Midrash in Shemos Rabbah 51:8 (end) relates:
Said the Holy One Blessed Be He to Israel: “When you made the calf, you angered Me with the words eileh elokecha (this is your God). But now, with your making of the Mishkan [which is recounted] through the word eileh, I reconcile with you.” This is [what underlies the opening verse of our parashah]: “These (eileh) are the reckonings of the Mishkan.”
The word eileh, meaning these (or this, in the phrase “this is your God”), indicates a set of objects or circumstances that one can point to and say, “This is it” (see Rashi on Shemos 12:2 and 15:2).  Here, the Torah presents the protocol that the Jewish People followed in building the Mishkan and declares, “This is it” – this is exactly what Hashem commanded. It is through this precise compliance that the Jewish People became reconciled with Hashem.
David Zucker, Site Administrator